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Symposium 2009

Establishing a Global Climate Regime

The Challenge

There is no doubt that a global climate regime on the basis of international cooperation is needed to prevent some of the disastrous consequences of climate change.

Its challenge is that it must include the commitment of developed countries such as the U.S. and the EU as well as the commitment of large developing countries that have fast growing economies and a rapid increase in emissions such as China and India.

This is difficult because it raises questions of global climate justice, historic liability and equal rights, i.e. whether developing countries should enjoy the same right to economic growth based on fossil fuels as the industrialized countries have experienced over the past century.

In addition to the different levels of historic liability, there is also a large gap between regions what concerns environmental consequences of climate change – some countries face enormous challenges whilst others could even potentially benefit from climate change. Hence, an equitable cost-sharing globally for mitigation and adaption to climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time.

So far, global responses have materialized in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, and its principal update of 1997, the Kyoto Protocol. Even if it introduces for the first time mandatory emission limits, it has large shortcomings: It only mandates minor GHG reductions by the industrial countries, major emitters of the developed countries like the US, Canada and Australia did not sign the agreement and fast developing economies like China and India do not face binding caps. Moreover, the Kyoto Protocol does not include the right of sanctions against non-complying members or against non signatories. Therefore a more efficient climate regime must be developed, and in the light of the forthcoming negotiations in Copenhagen in 2009 it must be discussed if any of the following solutions should be part of an international global climate regime.

    Solutions

    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Establish a global carbon price to give businesses a clear investment signal.

    Establish a global carbon price to give businesses a clear investment signal.

    Establish a global carbon price to give businesses a clear investment signal.

    Polity, Business
    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Combine a global cap-and-trade system with an adaptation fund and access to emission-saving technologies for poor countries.

    Combine a global cap-and-trade system with an adaptation fund and access to emission-saving technologies for poor countries.

    Combine a global cap-and-trade system with an adaptation fund and access to emission-saving technologies for poor countries.

    Polity
    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Give developing countries’ perspective more credit.

    Give developing countries’ perspective more credit.

    Give developing countries’ perspective more credit.

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Mitigate climate change by controlling population growth, by promoting access to family planning, and by investing in education and employment for women.

    Mitigate climate change by controlling population growth, by promoting access to family planning, and by investing in education and employment for women.

    Mitigate climate change by controlling population growth, by promoting access to family planning, and by investing in education and employment for women.

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Forestry will be an essential part of a deal.

    Forestry will be an essential part of a deal.

    Forestry will be an essential part of a deal.

    Polity
    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Focus the targets on carbon dioxide, but aim to include other emissions, such as black carbon.

    Focus the targets on carbon dioxide, but aim to include other emissions, such as black carbon.

    Focus the targets on carbon dioxide, but aim to include other emissions, such as black carbon.

    Polity
    Solution
    Symposium 2009

    Establish a new global climate agreement that specifies firm targets and commitments.

    Establish a new global climate agreement that specifies firm targets and commitments.

    Establish a new global climate agreement that specifies firm targets and commitments.

    Polity

    Proposals

    Proposal
    Symposium 2009

    Establishing a Global Climate Change Regime

    A clear commitment by the international community is needed which sets climate change mitigation as a priority despite the financial crisis Developed and developing countries must come to an agreement ...

    A clear commitment by the international community is needed which sets climate change mitigation as a priority despite the financial crisis Developed and developing countries must come to an agreement on international emissions reduction before it is too late for mitigation – no member of the international community can be exempt from reducing emissions. Global climate justice and historic liability must be taken into account, as well as a per capita emission rights, but this may not lead to a leeway for further increase of emissions in some countries. Targets must be at radically low levels, demanding that all countries

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Proposal
    Symposium 2009

    Establishing a Global Climate Regime

    The latest scientific research tells us that climate change is faster and worse than scientists predicted even a few years ago. It is heartening that the G8 has now agreed that we must find a way to k ...

    The latest scientific research tells us that climate change is faster and worse than scientists predicted even a few years ago. It is heartening that the G8 has now agreed that we must find a way to keep global average temperatures from increasing more than 2 degrees Celsius. But there is still little progress toward a global deal that would secure that result. The Abatement Cost Curve developed by McKinsey and Company frames the challenge. It tells us that we have the solutions we need to meet the 2 degree goal, and that the costs are manageable. It also tells

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Proposal
    Symposium 2009

    Establishing a global climate regime

    ContextWe face an expanding world, both in terms of population and our appetite for energy¸ and the drain on our natural resources will be huge By 2050, the world is expected to have 50% more people, ...

    ContextWe face an expanding world, both in terms of population and our appetite for energy¸ and the drain on our natural resources will be huge By 2050, the world is expected to have 50% more people, 85% living in developing countries. Most will be living in urban areas. All will need food, water, shelter and livelihoods. They will need access to energy to better their lives - 1.6 billion currently have no access to electricity. More people with electricity cannot be allowed to mean more GHG emissions. A move to a high-growth, low-carbon economy is imperative. Necessity is the mother

    Polity, Business, Civil Society
    Proposal
    Symposium 2009

    by Jiahua Pan, China Research Centre for Sustainable Development

    A global climate regime has to meet sustainability requirement and satisfy equity principles. In this regard, we need to first agree a long term goal, for temperature increase, stabilization of atmosp ...

    A global climate regime has to meet sustainability requirement and satisfy equity principles. In this regard, we need to first agree a long term goal, for temperature increase, stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentration level, or emission reduction target, either of which can be converted to the others. Then the second task is to look at the share of responsibilities for emission reductions. For the first task, setting global target is almost in concensus. 2 degrees as compared to pre industrial level or 450ppm CO2 level in the atmosphere. Such requirements are included in the IPCC 4th Assessment report and

    Polity, Business, Civil Society
    Proposal
    Symposium 2009

    How to include the Amazon in a New Climate Regime?

    According to IPCC, forests account for about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, forests play important roles in global climate dynamics such as the hydrological cycle. Conserving existing f ...

    According to IPCC, forests account for about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, forests play important roles in global climate dynamics such as the hydrological cycle. Conserving existing forests has thus to be a part of a new climate regime. However, conserving Amazon forests is costly. It is fair that countries that receive environmental benefits from the Amazon share the costs of forest conservation. There is a window of opportunity to create value for Amazonian environmental services through the new agreements on climate change to be signed in Copenhagen, in December 2009. Reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society

    Implemen- tations