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Symposium 2014

Norms for Global Governance: Approaches to Better Security

The Challenge

In economically straitened times, states must address challenges to security to reduce the vulnerability of individuals, communities, nations and humanity; mitigate and manage tangible threats; and improve resilience to shocks. Addressing each is a challenge; determining what to prioritize and how to allocate scarce resources is even more of a challenge.

Each government must seek to improve human security (freedom from want and fear); enable the security of its subnational communities (from crime, disease, and natural disasters); ensure national security (protection of borders, institutions, and governance); contribute to the security of nonnational communities (against natural disasters and crimes against humanity); and contribute to global security (averting war between states, ethnic and ideological conflicts, economic disruption, pandemics, environmental degradation, and climate change). Squaring the circle with limited resources involves difficult choices and requires understanding the trade-offs. Scholars from the USA, Russia, China, Africa, India, Brazil, and SIPRI were asked to propose solutions. The diversity of their insights illustrates the breadth of the topic, the challenge in assembling an integrated perspective, and the importance of doing so.

    Solutions

    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Restore the principles of collaborative security

    Restore the principles of collaborative security

    Restore the principles of collaborative security

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Facilitate the integration of individual, state and global security in Russia, by deepening Moscow’s involvement in the international security dialogue

    Facilitate the integration of individual, state and global security in Russia, by deepening Moscow’s involvement in the international security dialogue

    Facilitate the integration of individual, state and global security in Russia, by deepening Moscow’s involvement in the international security dialogue

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Engage in a respectful discussion of international norms, and build on collaborative experience in addressing natural disasters and joint delivery of development aid

    Engage in a respectful discussion of international norms, and build on collaborative experience in addressing natural disasters and joint delivery of development aid

    Engage in a respectful discussion of international norms, and build on collaborative experience in addressing natural disasters and joint delivery of development aid

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Align African institutions around shared responsibility for security, strengthen institutional capability and clarify the basis for transitions

    Align African institutions around shared responsibility for security, strengthen institutional capability and clarify the basis for transitions

    Align African institutions around shared responsibility for security, strengthen institutional capability and clarify the basis for transitions

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Recognize the vital contribution of self-organized community action in reducing vulnerability and strengthening social equity; ensure that we focus on development in the post-2015 SDGs

    Recognize the vital contribution of self-organized community action in reducing vulnerability and strengthening social equity; ensure that we focus on development in the post-2015 SDGs

    Recognize the vital contribution of self-organized community action in reducing vulnerability and strengthening social equity; ensure that we focus on development in the post-2015 SDGs

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Measure development, geographically and socioeconomically, more comprehensively, to allow states to engage differentially, in different contexts, in order to enhance human security

    Measure development, geographically and socioeconomically, more comprehensively, to allow states to engage differentially, in different contexts, in order to enhance human security

    Measure development, geographically and socioeconomically, more comprehensively, to allow states to engage differentially, in different contexts, in order to enhance human security

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Model the social-economic efficiency of alternative security packages, recognizing the inevitable trade-offs

    Model the social-economic efficiency of alternative security packages, recognizing the inevitable trade-offs

    Model the social-economic efficiency of alternative security packages, recognizing the inevitable trade-offs

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society

    Proposals

    Proposal
    Symposium 2014

    Learning from India’s SHGs: Livelihoods Generation and Human Security

    It is imperative for the global community engaged in enhancing human security, to understand the successes and challenges of India’s livelihoods programmes involving rural Self-Help Groups, in order ...

    It is imperative for the global community engaged in enhancing human security, to understand the successes and challenges of India’s livelihoods programmes involving rural Self-Help Groups, in order to better understand how individuals and communities shape development outcomes. The notion of ‘security’ is constantly in flux. It has come under scrutiny as traditional state-centric narratives can no longer explain the complex interplay between the local and the global, or the role of non-state actors in security. Cognizant of the need to redefine security in an increasingly integrated world, the UNDP adopted an alternative notion of ‘Human Security’ its 1994 Human

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Proposal
    Symposium 2014

    Policy making, Perceptions and Socioeconomic Vulnerability

    Living conditions perception surveys can be important instruments for identifying and addressing socioeconomic vulnerabilities The problem of how policy-makers should identify and address the needs an ...

    Living conditions perception surveys can be important instruments for identifying and addressing socioeconomic vulnerabilities The problem of how policy-makers should identify and address the needs and priorities of their stakeholders – the population at large and those in need of policy intervention – has long been vexing. Society is a complex, evolving system, and policy is best aided by feedback. This takes many forms in current practice. On the one hand, statistical records focus on objective, measurable information, whether in the form of wider aggregates such as unemployment or individual-level data from very large samples of the population. In a

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society

    Virtual Library

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Addressing the Sources of Global, National and Human Vulnerability, and Promoting Security - Rethinking the Paradigm

    To manage systemic global risks, and to protect the global commons, we need to manage transnational challenges more effectively. It is not clear that we are moving in the right direction. The tension ...

    To manage systemic global risks, and to protect the global commons, we need to manage transnational challenges more effectively. It is not clear that we are moving in the right direction. The tension between the short-term pressures on national leaders from their citizens, and the trade-offs needed to balance costs and benefits in inter-national and inter-temporal transactions, makes collective action on transnational scales difficult under most circumstances. Current events, from the recent global financial crisis and recession, to the risk of inflection points if we transgress planetary boundaries, make it clear that present arrangements are far from satisfactory.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Advancing Security By Addressing Vulnerabilities: A View From China

    As China rises as a world power, there is a growing necessity for China to define its interests on the global stage—whether through official statements and policies, or via external actors’ obse ...

    As China rises as a world power, there is a growing necessity for China to define its interests on the global stage—whether through official statements and policies, or via external actors’ observations and perceptions. The Chinese lens on the nature of security is evolving, and must consider the major challenges to security in and beyond China. This paper seeks to provide an understanding of China’s outlook on security and vulnerability through case studies on: China’s response to domestic and global challenges in dealing with natural disasters; human security, sub-national security and the responsibility to protect as a norm; energy, food, and mineral security; and the promotion of economic, societal, and political security in poor and volatile countries through development aid. Such an understanding is vital for building a sense of how China views its security challenges, and how it will contribute to the search for new norms of global governance in the security sphere.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Principles and Practices for Global Security

    When I was asked to provide an American perspective on the best way to address the sources of global, national, and human vulnerability and promote security, I almost declined because the question is ...

    When I was asked to provide an American perspective on the best way to address the sources of global, national, and human vulnerability and promote security, I almost declined because the question is so broad and contentious. But the more I thought, the less I could resist. The very fact that the question is so broad and contentious gets at the central puzzle of my own research agenda: why has it been so difficult for the United States to agree with other countries on steps to reduce nuclear dangers and address other shared security problems? Does increasing international cooperation depend on getting prior domestic and international agreement about the general principles of security policy? Or is it better to seek agreement on specific rules and concrete projects that can appeal to diverse countries and domestic groups for different reasons?

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Human Security and the Global Development Agenda: Lessons from Self-Help Groups

    The notion of ‘security’ is constantly in flux. It has come under scrutiny as traditional state-centric narratives can no longer explain the complex interplay between the local and the global, o ...

    The notion of ‘security’ is constantly in flux. It has come under scrutiny as traditional state-centric narratives can no longer explain the complex interplay between the local and the global, or the role of non-state actors in security. Cognizant of the need to redefine security in an increasingly integrated world, the UNDP adopted an alternative notion of ‘Human Security’ its 1994 Human Development Report. The report states that “for more people a feeling of insecurity arises from worries about daily life than from the dread of a cataclysmic world event”. While the UNDP’s attempts to create a security narrative centered on the individual have been lauded, human security is still not well defined as there is a lack of consensus on its definition.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Addressing the Sources of Global, National and Human Vilnerability and Promoting Security: Views from Africa

    Sub-Saharan Africa is decidedly heterogeneous when it comes to the interests and normative underpinnings that frame each country's interpretation of the notion of security, not to mention the capacity ...

    Sub-Saharan Africa is decidedly heterogeneous when it comes to the interests and normative underpinnings that frame each country's interpretation of the notion of security, not to mention the capacity and willingness of individual African states to address the myriad forms of insecurity and vulnerability.

    That said, there have been considerable efforts, regionally and particularly continentally, to develop norms (rules of behaviour) and institutions to address the causes of global, national and human vulnerability and promote security. This year, the African Union's Peace and Security Council (PSC) celebrates its 10th anniversary, thus presenting an opportune moment to reflect on progress made to date and, more importantly, the challenges it faces in promoting peace, security and stability in Africa.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Addressing the Sources of Global, National and Human Vulnerability, and Promoting Security - A Russian Perspective

    The list of challenges for individual and national security is rapidly expanding, and even the world’s foremost countries are not capable of independently addressing many of them. The high degree of ...

    The list of challenges for individual and national security is rapidly expanding, and even the world’s foremost countries are not capable of independently addressing many of them. The high degree of global interdependency and the increasing number of transnational threats clearly underscore the need for an active and cooperative international response.
    Many threats originate from non-state actors. This complicates the tasks of timely preventing and neutralizing them.
    Such transnational threats include: international terrorism, religious extremism, cross-border criminal activity, “shadow” international financial structures, narcotics trafficking, cyberterrorism, piracy, food and water shortages, environmental disasters, mass migration, pandemics, etc. These are not the traditional military - political challenges.

    A new realm of systemic risks is emerging. These risks could impact the national security, social and economic development of states, entire regions and the global landscape. Nonetheless, the traditional threats of a military and political nature remain the top priority in the security mechanisms of many states, including Russia.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Measuring and Evaluating Security: An Economic Approach

    Although a basic question to ask, it is impossible to answer whether or not we are secure without first, asking a whole range of subsequent questions. Chief amongst these questions is, “What is secu ...

    Although a basic question to ask, it is impossible to answer whether or not we are secure without first, asking a whole range of subsequent questions. Chief amongst these questions is, “What is security?” There are, of course, some phenomena that will immediately spring to mind; terrorism, conflict and other forms of violence are ready and pertinent examples, particularly in the current context. However, such phenomena are far from an exhaustive list. Whilst images of the conflicts in Gaza and Ukraine are very present, it is not so long ago that news sources were dominated by the collapse of an industrial building in Bangladesh and before that, images of an earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Does the risk of such industrial accidents and natural disasters constitute a threat to security? Or what about the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa and other health disasters? On an even more abstracted level, do threats to ways of life, economic security and so on reflect some of insecurity?