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Symposium 2014

Forest, Food, and Biodiversity

The Challenge

Global demand for biomass-based products is expected to increase over the next decades. Important drivers of future demand are a growing world population, changing consumption patterns toward higher meat consumption, and an increasing demand for biofuels and bio-based materials in industrial processes. Studies conclude that global agricultural supply needs to be increased by 70–110% to meet this increasing demand by 2050 (FAO 2011; Tilman et al. 2011). Meeting this challenge requires global and regional measures. Many options are available, e.g., reducing food waste and losses, agricultural land expansion, changing diets, and increasing biomass production by agricultural intensification.

The increasing world-wide demand for food has already led to a large-scale conversion of tropical forests. Insular Southeast Asia experienced the highest level of deforestation among all humid tropical regions of the world during the 1990s. Case studies found that oil palm expansion was the major contributor to peatland forest fragmentation in the Malaysian state of Selangor between 1966–1995 (Abdullah and Nakagoshi 2007). Given these trends, particularly in East Asia few untouched areas are left. They provide important ecosystem services locally but also for the global community. Tropical forests are hot spots of biodiversity and provide other ecosystem services such as carbon storage. Owing to the exceptionally high biodiversity in Southeast Asian forest ecosystems and the immense amount of carbon stored in forests and peatlands, deforestation and drainage of peatlands in this region have the potential to cause serious global consequences.

    Solutions

    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Extending sustainability certification to all markets for agricultural and forestry products

    Extending sustainability certification to all markets for agricultural and forestry products

    Extending sustainability certification to all markets for agricultural and forestry products

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society
    Solution
    Symposium 2014

    Increasing cooperation among stakeholders in implementing sustainable supply chains

    Increasing cooperation among stakeholders in implementing sustainable supply chains

    Increasing cooperation among stakeholders in implementing sustainable supply chains

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society

    Proposals

    Proposal
    Symposium 2014

    Sustainability Certification as an Effective Tool to Transform Global Markets

    Extent Sustainability Certification to All Markets for Agricultural and Forestry Products! Global climate policy has failed. Rio+20 and several international summits showed how difficult it is to move ...

    Extent Sustainability Certification to All Markets for Agricultural and Forestry Products! Global climate policy has failed. Rio+20 and several international summits showed how difficult it is to move from political discussion to the urgently required action to protect climate and biodiversity. An alternative to long term political discussions is sustainability certification as it has been implemented in the European Union. In the biofuels market it is a legal requirement to show compliance with certain sustainability requirements, in particular regarding GHG emissions and land use criteria. Areas with high biodiversity value or high carbon stocks are not allowed to be used

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society

    Background Paper

    Background Paper
    Symposium 2014

    Forest, Food, and Biodiversity

    Studies conclude that global agricultural supply needs to be increased by 70-110% to meet an increasing demand by 2050. Besides food demand, the use of biomass for bio-fuel and bio-based materials in ...

    Studies conclude that global agricultural supply needs to be increased by 70-110% to meet an increasing demand by 2050. Besides food demand, the use of biomass for bio-fuel and bio-based materials in industrial processes will increase even faster. This paper gives some facts about forest, food, and biodiversity,

    Polity, Academia, Business, Civil Society

    Virtual Library

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    The resources outlook: by how much do land, water and crop yields need to increase by 2050?

    Fuelled by the turbulence of world agricultural markets, the debate on relations among agriculture, food security, natural resources, population growth and economic development has been revamped ove ...

    Fuelled by the turbulence of world agricultural markets, the debate on relations among agriculture, food security, natural resources, population growth and economic development has been revamped over the last few years. How are growth prospects and the expected evolution of per capita income in the long term going to affect the agricultural and food economy? Are the natural resources available, such as land and water, sufficient to feed a growing population? What role can economic incentives and technical change play in shaping resource use and supply? What are the priority areas where investment and research should be directed? How may the use of agricultural products in biofuel production affect markets? And how can climate change affect production possibilities and markets? Around these questions, this outlook seeks to sustain the debate on the future of the global agricultural and food economy.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2013-2022

    For decades, global agriculture was characterised by policy-induced production surpluses in industrialised countries and stagnating growth in developing countries. Policy reforms and economic gro ...

    For decades, global agriculture was characterised by policy-induced production surpluses in industrialised countries and stagnating growth in developing countries. Policy reforms and economic growth across the globe have been changing demand and supply fundamentals sufficiently to turn agriculture into a more market-driven sector which provides investment opportunities, particularly in developing countries. This Outlook brings together the commodity, policy and country expertise of both organisations, the OECD and FAO, and input from collaborating member countries to provide an annual assessment of prospects for the coming decade of national, regional and global agricultural commodity markets. With one-fifth of the world’s population, high income growth and a rapidly expanding agri-food sector, China is a special focus of this Outlook.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Global Biodiversity Outlook 3

    This Outlook presents some stark choices for human societies. On one hand it warns that the diversity of living things on the planet continues to be eroded as a result of human activities. The press ...

    This Outlook presents some stark choices for human societies. On one hand it warns that the diversity of living things on the planet continues to be eroded as a result of human activities. The pressures driving the loss of biodiversity show few signs of easing, and in some cases are escalating. The consequences of current trends are much worse than previously thought, and place in doubt the continued provision of vital ecosystem services. The poor stand to suffer disproportionately from potentially catastrophic changes to ecosystems in coming decades, but ultimately all societies stand to lose. On the other hand, the Outlook offers a message of hope. The options for addressing the crisis are wider than was apparent in earlier studies. Determined action to conserve biodiversity and use it sustainably will reap rich rewards. It will benefit people in many ways - through better health, greater food security and less poverty.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. In this article, the authors project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the ...

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. In this article, the authors project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. They find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100–110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. All in all, efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use and attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

    Virtual Library File
    Symposium 2014

    Rate of deforestation in Indonesia overtakes Brazil, says study

    This article discusses new numbers on deforestation in Indonesia. The new figures are significant because Indonesia is the world's third-largest producer of greenhouse gases behind China and the US, ...

    This article discusses new numbers on deforestation in Indonesia. The new figures are significant because Indonesia is the world's third-largest producer of greenhouse gases behind China and the US, with 85% of its emissions coming from forest destruction and degradation. Indonesia lost 840,000 hectares of forest in 2012 compared to 460,000 hectares in Brazil, despite its forest being a quarter the size of the Amazon rainforest. Further, data indicates that extra losses came largely from the felling of primary forest in wetlands and in government-protected areas.